An increase in the actual fire resistance of the supporting structures is a priority task when designing any building, because the threat of collapse during a fire can destroy many lives. Modern methods of fire protection suggest the use of a whole complex of measures directed:
on a decrease in the possible influence of high temperatures to a minimum;
to improve refractory properties of the material.
In the case of the use of metal structures in the construction of the building, you should pay attention to the first factor, because steel, like any other metal, is not susceptible to burning, but its excessive heating leads to a significant deterioration in the strength characteristics of the canvas. Fire protection of metal, as a rule, is a thin layer of special paintwork materials, which are swollen when heated, forming a heat -resistant layer. As a result, the critical temperature of the beam can be achieved not in 10-40 minutes, but after 2-2.5 hours.
When working with wood, it is necessary to eliminate increased combustibility of this material, as well as, if possible, to arrange temporary protection that protects beams from high -temperature effects. The first goal is achieved by deep impregnation of wood with antipyrens – special compounds that prevent burning. External fire protection of wooden structures can be built by means of refractory screens, concreting, brick lining or paint.
The following measures are used to constructive elements of plywood or wood plastic:
impregnation of sheets before gluing antipyrens;
impregnation of the outer part of the finished products;
painting the surface of plywood with fire -retardant enamels;
The surface lining with metal sheets or materials with asbestos base is also possible.
In the process of organizing fire protection, attention is paid to the operating conditions of structural elements of the building. So, if the elements are in dry, heated rooms, you can use non -point -resistant means, respectively for external structures, atmospheric resistant. In any case, the fireproof layer during the operation of the building should be in an affordable state. Any defects, especially in the case of using metal structures, can completely level the efficiency of thermal screens and colors.